Review Article

Designer Cellulosomes: A Targeted Approach for Biomass Degradation

AMAN JAISWAL, AJAY KUMAR*, DEEPAK KUMAR KOLI, SHEKHAR KUMAR, BHAGWAN SINGH DHAKAD

Division of Microbiology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi

Corresponding Author's Email: jangraajay8888@gmail.com

Abstract

Degradation of polysaccharides such as cellulose is of major interest in the quest for alternative sources of renewable energy, for its positive effects on environment and ecology, and for use in advanced biotechnological applications. One of the key challenges in biomass processing is associated with the establishment of an efficient enzymatic degradation of plant cell wall. Due to the intricate composition of the plant cell wall, its efficient degradation requires the involvement of a large number of enzymes exhibiting multiple functionalities. A multienzymatic complex, cellulosome, was identified as a highly efficient biocatalyst for the hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass in nature. Significant progress has been achieved on cellulosome production and application since its discovery, but there is still a gap for industrial use. Artificial systems as designer cellulosomes are being developed by employing various pairs of proteins and scaffolds with the objective of reconstructing this natural multi-enzymatic complex for lignocellulose breakdown. The incorporation of laccases from Thermobifida fusca into designer cellulosomes exhibited increased degradation of wheat straw. In addition they have also been applied for degradation of marine algal biomass. Designer cellulosome nano devices for enhanced plant cell wall degradation thus have major impacts in the fields of environmental pollution, bioenergy production, and biotechnology in general.

Keywords: Designer Cellulosomes, Targeted Approach, Biomass Degradation

Page No.: 06-11

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